The results of genetic testing can be used to analyze the types of genes contained in an individual to determine whether the gene is defective and whether the gene expression function is normal. Through genetic testing, people can know their own genetic information, determine the cause of a disease, or predict the risk of a certain disease. Genetic testing can diagnose diseases and can also be used to predict disease risks. There are three general methods of genetic testing.
Biochemical testing is to detect the protein content in blood, urine, and amniotic fluid samples through chemical means. It is used to diagnose genetic defects caused by a certain protein imbalance that maintains the normal function of the body.
Chromosome analysis directly detects abnormalities in the number and structure of chromosomes, rather than detecting mutations or abnormalities in a certain gene on a certain chromosome. It is usually used to diagnose abnormalities in the fetus.
DNA analysis is mainly used to identify genetic diseases caused by a single gene abnormality, and mainly to analyze cells from the blood or hair.
As we can see in the figure below, the application directions of genetic testing are mainly for medical treatment, including newborn genetic screening, non-invasive inspection, early tumor screening, cardiovascular disease estimation, nucleic acid amplification testing and doctor medication guidance. Genetic testing methods have huge advantages over traditional diagnostic methods for the diagnosis of the cause of certain diseases.
Fig.1 The applications of genetic testing
Most of the process of genetic testing is actually the process of gene sequencing. The sequencing result is mainly obtained through gene sequencing, and the diagnosis result is finally obtained based on the comparison with the normal genome to find the problematic gene. Of course, when only qualitative test results are required, there is no need for time-consuming gene sequencing processes, such as nucleic acid amplification testing. For most genetic testing processes, htDNA-chip® technology platform can provide high-throughput next-generation sequencing, which greatly shortens the sequencing time of genes. htDNA-chip® can realize the output of sequencing results within a few minutes, which greatly promotes the application of genetic testing in medical treatment. Compared with low-throughput and inaccurate sequencing, htDNA-chip® has obvious advantages.
Fig.2 htDNA-chip® in genetic testing
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