Gene editing is a technology that precisely manipulates DNA sequences in cells to change cell fate and biological characteristics. This technology provides an important tool for improving human understanding of genetics and the treatment of genetic diseases. CRISPR-Cas9, as the most useful gene editing tool, has been used to manipulate cultured cells and primary cells, edit the genomes of animals and plants, accelerate the pace of basic research, and make breakthroughs insynthetic biotechnology. And now, we are entering a new era in which gene editing technology will be used to inactivate or modify disease-causing genes in patients and provide life-saving treatment options for people with genetic diseases.
The CRISPR-Cas9 system was originally a way for bacterias to protect themselves from virus infection. When bacterias detect virus invading DNA, they will produce a kind of guide RNA (gRNA), which is used to identify the DNA of the invading virus. gRNA and Cas9 nuclease combine to form a protein complex. When gRNA recognizes its target, cas9 will cut off the target DNA. By designing and modifying gRNA, we can achieve precise cutting. When the complex locks to the target short sequence, cas9 will untie the DNA to match the guide RNA. After the pairing is completed, cas9 cuts the DNA. In this process, the cell will try to repair its DNA, usually resulting in mutations that disable genes. But the mutation is random. Researchers only need to add the required genes to realize the replacement of the variant genes.
Fig.1 The working process of CRISPR-Cas9 in gene editing (Randhawa, S.; et al. 2021)
Our silicon-based htDNA-chip® technology platform can firstly customize the construction of gRNA libraries. Due to the flexibility of htDNA-chip®, you can construct gRNA libraries with any performance and size. htDNA-chip® provides next-generation high-throughput sequencing analysis throughout the entire process to ensure the accuracy of each step of synthesis. In addition, next-generation high-throughput sequencing can also be used to identify and verify the results of gene editing. Through htDNA-chip® technology platform, cost, time and manpower will be greatly saved.
Fig.2 htDNA-chip® in gene editing
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